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LAMHDI: The Search for Animal Models Starts Here  
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Search Help

The Basics

Single Words: Searching on a single word will return results containing that word. Example: pkd2.

Multiple Words: Multiple words will return results with all of the given words somewhere in the searched text (not necessarily in the same order). Example: pkd2 zebrafish.

Quoted Phrases: Placing multiple words within double quotes will return results containing all the words in the exact order given. Example: "polycystic kidney disease".

Boolean Logic: Boolean operators can be used to refine your results. When spelled out, these operators must be typed in UPPER CASE or they will be treated as normal search terms.

AND: Combining words and phrases with AND or & (ampersand) will return results with each of the given words and phrases somewhere in the searched text. AND is implied and does not have to be used to find multiple words and phrases. The precedence for AND is higher than the precedence for OR, but lower than the precedence for NOT.

Examples: pkd2 AND zebrafish and "polycystic kidney disease" & zebrafish.

OR: Separating optional words and phrases with OR or | (the vertical bar or "pipe" character) will return results with either of the given words or phrases in the searched text. The precedence for OR is lower than the precedence for both AND and NOT.

Examples: "polycystic kidney disease" OR pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis | pyelonephritis.

NOT: Preceding a word or phrase with NOT, - (hyphen), ~ (tilde), or ! (exclamation mark) will return results that do not have the given word or phrase in the searched text. The precedence for NOT is higher than the precedence for both AND and OR.

Examples: pkd2 NOT mouse, "polycystic kidney disease" -mouse, kidney ~pyelonephritis and pyelonephritis !"polycystic kidney disease".

Parentheses: Parentheses can be used to override normal precedence. For example, the search "gene therapy" NOT (pkd2 OR brca1) will return all records that have the exact phrase "gene therapy" in them, but do not have the words "pkd2" and "brca1" in them. A good rule of thumb: when in doubt, use parentheses.

Facets: The materials indexed in LAMHDI have varying degrees of structure. The records in the LAMDHI Database Search index are highly structured, while the pages in the Web Search index are relatively unstructured. Facets (also known as fields) represent each of the structured sections in each LAMHDI index. Imagine that a spreadsheet represents each LAMHDI index, and that within it each row represents one record or document in the index, while each column represents one facet of that record, such as the title of a page, the URL of that page, the body of the page, and so on. These facets can be used to narrow searches by restricting search terms in a query to particular columns of this hypothetical spreadsheet.

To restrict a search term to a specific facet, simply precede the term with the name of the facet (also called a field label). For example, to search for documents containing the word insulin in their titles, the proper query is title:insulin. To search for documents that do not contain a word, use the Boolean NOT operator ahead of the facet name, like so: NOT title:insulin or -title:insulin.

Each search index (or search mode) has its own facets. Some facets are common between modes, but most are not. Some facets have alternate forms (synonyms or aliases); most do not. When used as field labels, facet names are case-insensitive and should be typed without any spaces in them. All supported facets are listed at the end of this document, grouped by search mode.

Search History

Search history can be used to combine searches using Boolean operators.

Look for the search numbers in the Search History section of any search results page. Each query you submit during your session with LAMHDI is assigned a unique search number. Identical searches are not assigned new search numbers.

To refer to a previous search within a new search, use these search numbers. For example, the search #2 OR #3 will return the results from your search #2 plus those from your search #3, and the search #10 NOT mouse will return the results from your search #10 but will exclude any results that have the word "mouse" in them. (Remember that when Boolean operators are spelled out, they must be typed in UPPER CASE or they will be treated as normal search terms.)

Registered users see additional controls in the Search History section that permit queries to be saved in the user's account. Any of these saved searches can be easily run again later.

Advanced Search Options

The Advanced Search Options interface can be used to generate queries that narrow and refine your searches.

Except when the search mode provides controls to let you indicate otherwise, each Advanced Search Option you specify is combined using the Boolean AND operator with the other options you specify. Multiple words entered when specifying Advanced Search Options will automatically be treated as quoted phrases; you do not need to add the quotes yourself. You generally should not use facets (field labels) when entering search terms here; the individual Advanced Search Options already correspond to the available facets for the current search mode. (The exceptions are the various "search by words/phrases" controls in the Advanced Search Options for the Web Search mode, where quoted phrases and facets can be used if desired.)

When you submit a query built with the Advanced Search Options interface, LAMHDI will generate the equivalent Boolean search for your query and show that in the manual search box in case you wish to examine or adjust it.

Hand-built Boolean queries actually offer you greater flexibility and more expressive power than the Advanced Search Options interface. However this interface relieves you of the need to remember the names of the various facets available for each search mode.

The Advanced Search Options interface also allows you to set the maximum number of search results returned each time you submit a query (including hand-built queries, not just those built using this interface).

LAMHDI Database Search Facets

LAMHDI's Database Search mode brings together scientifically validated information from various sources to create a composite multi-species database of animal models of human disease. Please see the Featured Resources page for details on the data sources represented in this index. The searchable facets for this data are:

  • Animal — Use animal: or species: or organism: to search within this facet.
  • Disease — Use disease: to search within this facet.
  • Model — Use model: or modelid: to search within this facet.
  • Gene — Use gene: to search within this facet.
  • Association — Use cluster: or association: or relatedgenes: to search within this facet.

Literature Search Facets

LAMHDI's Literature Search mode currently provides an index of the subset of PrimateLit citations annotated with the term "animal models" in the Methods facet. Please see the Featured Resources page for more information. The searchable facets for this data are:

  • Anatomy — Use anatomy: to search within this facet.
  • Author — Use author: to search within this facet.
  • Behavior — Use behavior: to search within this facet.
  • Biology — Use biology: to search within this facet.
  • Book Title — Use booktitle: to search within this facet.
  • Chemistry — Use chemistry: to search within this facet.
  • Content Type — Use contenttype: to search within this facet.
  • CPR Heading — Use cprheading: to search within this facet.
  • Disciplines — Use disciplines: to search within this facet.
  • Diseases — Use diseases: to search within this facet.
  • PrimateLit DN — Use dn: or pldn: to search within this facet.
  • Editor — Use editor: to search within this facet.
  • Email Address — Use email: to search within this facet.
  • Generalities — Use generalities: to search within this facet.
  • Geography — Use geography: to search within this facet.
  • Gov Doc Title — Use govdoctitle: to search within this facet.
  • ISBN — Use isbn: to search within this facet.
  • ISSN — Use issn: to search within this facet.
  • Institutions — Use institutions: to search within this facet.
  • Journal Title — Use journaltitle: to search within this facet.
  • Language — Use language: to search within this facet.
  • Methods — Use methods: to search within this facet.
  • Microbiology — Use microbiology: to search within this facet.
  • Misc Information — Use miscinformation: to search within this facet.
  • Nonprimates — Use nonprimates: to search within this facet.
  • PubMed ID — Use pmid: to search within this facet.
  • Pagination — Use pagination: to search within this facet.
  • Parasites — Use parasites: to search within this facet.
  • Physical Agents — Use physicalagents: to search within this facet.
  • Publication Year — Use publicationyear: to search within this facet.
  • Published At — Use publishedat: to search within this facet.
  • Published By — Use publishedby: to search within this facet.
  • Related URL — Use relatedurl: to search within this facet.
  • Reprint Address — Use reprintaddress: to search within this facet.
  • Summary Language — Use summarylanguage: to search within this facet.
  • Taxonomy — Use taxonomy: to search within this facet.
  • Title — Use title: to search within this facet.
  • Volume and Issue — Use volumeandissue: to search within this facet.

Web Search Facets

LAMHDI's Web Search mode is a classic search engine focused on websites of interest to animal model researchers. Please see the LAMHDI Web Search Seeds page for a complete list of the sites LAMHDI crawls to populate this index. The searchable facets for this data are:

  • Body — Use body: to search within this facet.
  • Title — Use title: to search within this facet.
  • Keywords — Use keywords: to search within this facet.
  • Description — Use description: to search within this facet.
  • Protocol — Use protocol: to search within this facet.
  • Site — Use host: or site: to search within this facet.
  • Path — Use path: to search within this facet.
  • File — Use file: to search within this facet.